Legal Documents on the Way towards Independence of Georgia

International Center on Conflict and Negotiation provides with the legal documents related to Georgia's way towards restoring her independence.

1991, 9 April - Act of Restoration of Independence of Georgia, signed by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia and the Members of the Government. On April 9, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declared the restoration of Independence of Georgia on the basis of the Independence Act of May 26, 1918.

The Appeal of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia to the people of the world. Zviad Gamsakhurdia informs the world community that a universal referendum was held in the Republic of Georgia on March 31, 1991, during which the population unanimously supported the recognition of Georgia's independence on the basis of the Act of the Independence of Georgia of May 26, 1918.

1990, 9 March - Decree by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.

According to the Decree adopted, the Red Army invasion of Georgia and the occupation of the entire territory of Georgia in February 1921, was, from a legal point of view, a military interference, intervention, and occupation. The actual annexation of Georgia by the Russian Soviet Socialist Federal Republic was denounced.

The decree declared illegal and null and void the May 21, 1921 Workers' and Peasants' Allied Agreement between the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the Soviet Socialist Federal Republic of Russia, the March 12, 1922 Agreement on the Establishment of the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of the Transcaucasia.

Source: Statements of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 3, p. 8-10.

1989, 20 June - Decree by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.

According to the Decree, the Commission on Political and Legal Assessment of Violations of the May 7, 1920 Treaty of Moscow between Soviet Russia (RSFSR) and the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) was established.

Source: Statements of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1989, # 6, p. 78-79.

1921, 21 February - The Constitution of Georgia, adopted on 21 February 1921, by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia. At that time, the Georgian Armed Forces were fighting against the Russian army on the outskirts of Tbilisi. The constitution was published in March 1921 in the printing house of Nestor Khvingia in Batumi. (We would like to express our gratitude to the well known archivist for the copy of this document provided on March 25, 2021).

1920 - For the Constitution of Georgia, by Pavle Sakvarelidze (1882-1937), Member of the Constitutional Commission, Member of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia. Newspaper "Republic of Georgia", 1920, №№: 17, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 41, 52, 55, 60, 68, 75.

1919-1920 - The Constitution of Georgia, draft project. Newspaper "Republic of Georgia", 1919, №№: 294, 295, 296 and 1920, № 38.

1918, 26 May - Declaration of Independence of Georgia, Protocol of the First Meeting of Georgian National Council. Documents and Materials of Foreign Policy of Transcaucasus and Georgia. Typography of the Government of the Republic of Georgia, Tifflis, 1919.

1801, 12 September - Russian Emperor Alexander I issued a manifesto on joining the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti to Russia. By the manifesto issued, the Russian Empire breached the Treaty of Georgievsk signed between the Russian Empire and the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti in 1783. The manifesto was read out to the Georgians gathered at the Sioni Cathedral on April 12, 1802.

The Russian Empire gradually abolished other Georgian kingdoms and principalities as well and annexed their territories.

1801 – The Russian Empire abolished the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti;

1810 – The Russian Empire abolished the Kingdom of Imereti;

1811 – The Russian Empire abolished the autocephalous status of the Georgian Orthodox Church;

1827 - The Russian Empire set Guria Principality Division Council;

1828 – The Russian Empire abolished the Principality of Guria;

1834 – The Russian Empire took control over the Principality of Svaneti;

1858 – The Russian Empire abolished the Principality of Svaneti;

1864 – The Russian Empire abolished the Principality of Abkhazia;

1867 – The Russian Empire abolished the Principality of Samegrelo.

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